Dictation revisited

August 2, 2011

Anyone of a certain generation will instantly recognise the words in the image (left)  from the dictation exercise.  This was how listening skills and, to a greater or lesser degree, grammar and spelling were taught, practised and  tested in the days before course books came with recordings on cassette tape or CD.  For those of us who were good at this sort of thing it became a game for example,  to spot the agreements with the preceding direct object in French (and other such traps designed to catch you out) but for those with weak spelling and an insecure knowledge of grammar I suspect it was a dull, dry exercise which further reinforced a sense a failure.   At some of my workshops there has been a look of horror on the faces of  a number of delegates if I announce that we are going to do a little dictation exercise, so even those who have ended up making languages their business have been mentally scarred for life!

I was surprised to discover in the course of doing some research for this post that until comparatively recently  the dictation as a test was part of the Edexcel GCE French O level test available to international centres, and although I would in no way wish to revive it as a testing method it does have some merits which are perhaps worth re-examining.

When I first started to learn Chinese about 5 years ago I soon realised that if I was going to make any progress at all I would have to do a lot of listening to get my ear tuned into the different tones so I started listening to Chinesepod.  As I hadn’t  paid to subscribe to the site I didn’t have access to the PDF transcripts, and so I treated the dialogues in the podcasts essentially as a dictation exercise.  I used to transcribe what I heard in Pinyin and I then used my dictionary (Oxford beginner’s) to look up and write down the characters;  in effect I was creating my own transcript.

I  later discovered that with the early versions of Chinesepod that it was possible to access a transcript (in both pinyin and characters) by clicking on the Show lyrics  tab for podcasts  downloaded into Itunes;  I could then check whether I had “got it right”.  Subsequently these transcripts accompanying the Itunes downloads only showed characters, but with some cutting and pasting into an online dictionary it is still possible to create your own transcript in pinyin.

In the course of the podcast the hosts would go through the meaning of each individual word/character so I could be reasonably confident that that I had chosen the correct character.  What this exercise made me do, and one of the great merits of dictation, was to listen very attentively, to  focus on the sound spelling link of the language, and even more importantly in Chinese, the tone.

It was this  homing in on the sound spelling link (together with the exceptions and the hazards, such as  the silent vowel sounds in French, to name but one)  that helped me to develop my understanding of spoken French all those years ago,  and to demonstrate my knowledge of grammar.  Of course there were lots of things wrong with dictation.  The texts were in often too long and dull, the speed at which they were  delivered was unnatural, they were rarely examples of authentic interchanges and didn’t prepare you for the cut and thrust of following the high speed utterances of a native speaker.  Furthermore they were seen as being totally in the control of the teacher with the learner in a passive role in as much as generating new language was concerned.  But that needn’t be the case……

Dictation actually has a lot going for it:

  • In a whole class setting all learners are involved – it is even possible to differentiate by providing lower ability learners with part of the text and they have to listen out for the words in the gaps
  • It fits in very well with self and peer assessment .  Pupils self or peer assess and set their own targets for improvement (PLTS – reflective learners); for example to do some additional listening practice in order to be able to discriminate between particular sounds.
  • It can be a useful settling exercise in a large noisy class.
  • It supports phonics work in focusing on the relationship between sound and spelling.
  • It is flexible exercise which can be adapted to individual, pair and group work.
  • Depending on how it is used it can lead to the creative use of language and interactive oral communication.

In an excellent book I’ve recently dusted off the shelf, Dictation by Paul Davis and Mario Rinvolucri there are suggestions for “dictation” activities suitable for all ages and levels, and although the examples are in English the principles are easily adapted to any language.  It’s worth checking out..

 


Let’s speak out for languages

September 24, 2010

The annual GSCE results have once again thrown the crisis facing languages and language teaching in this country into sharp focus.  BBC radio 4 devoted a whole hour to the subject and there has been much comment in the press, notably amongst the broadsheet newspapers. 

Whilst the You and Yours programme on August 31st highlighted many of the positive benefits of language learning  both to the individual by way of personal development, and to the country as a whole  in terms of having a linguistically skilled and culturally aware workforce, there was nothing radically new about what they discussed  and it neglected to address some of the issues that have dogged language learning and which continue to have an impact on the uptake of languages principally at KS4 and beyond. 

The programme sparked a flash meeting debate amongst a number of language professionals which picked up on several of the points made in the discussion including the old chestnut of having to be able to talk about changing a car tyre for the GCSE oral.  Unfortunately there was no one on the You and Yours programme to point out that this is no longer the case with the new GCSE courses, and that the controlled speaking and writing assessments can build on the flexibility of the content free KS3 curriculum.   The issue of severe grading was also discussed and Helen Myers, chair of the London branch of ALL, was invited to go on the programme a few weeks later to talk about this. 

This week, in the build up to its AGM, the Association for Language Learning is encouraging all language professionals to have their say – so here’s mine from the perspective of the secondary sector and as a former regional  subject adviser for the secondary curriculum…

  • Languages and language skills need to be valued as a key functional skill in this country.  Whilst attitudes such as “we’re no good at languages” and “everyone speaks English” prevail we are almost fighting a losing battle.  However, if we give in we are disenfranchising and disempowering our young people in what is an increasingly global and mobile workforce.  In virtually every other country, certainly in Europe and possibly in the world, there is no debate as to whether young people should be learning languages beyond the age of 13 or 14 because it is seen as an essential skill, over and above all the intangible benefits that language learning can bring by way of opening minds, intercultural awareness, the development of personal learning and thinking skills and so on.
  • In the media this message and debate needs to move beyond the broadsheets and radio 4 to a far wider audience through those channels which attract the attention of young people and in many cases their parents as well.  After all as language teachers we spend quite a lot of our time countering stereotypes which are propounded in some of the more rabid and xenophobic headlines of the tabloid press.  Wouldn’t it be great if one of those papers suddenly started affirming the value of languages (interviews with sports or other media personalities talking about why languages are important to them) and the importance of understanding other cultures?  Whilst on the subject of the media, wouldn’t it also be great if greater use were made of subtitles rather than dubbing when interviews are broadcast on TV?
  • One of the most motivating experiences for a language learner is to encounter the language and culture at first hand.  I am fortunate enough to work in a school where we still run exchanges, but in our risk averse society we are the exception rather than the norm.  Wouldn’t it make a difference if there were a commitment from the government to cut some of the red tape and make it easier, not more difficult, to run all kinds of trips abroad? And further, when we do run trips we must also remember to get the students who have been on them to “sell” them to their peers.  This week I sat in on an assembly given by the students I accompanied on this year’s SSAT/Hanban summer camp in China.  Their  presentation in which they talked about their first hand experience of encountering  another culture and the impact that that experience had had on them was far more compelling than anything I could have done.
  • Serious consideration should be given to making languages in some way compulsory beyond KS3 (which for some pupils now ends in year 8 rather than in year 9) with greater use being made of alternative accreditations to GCSE; accreditations which may be more appropriate to many learners’ needs.  These should have wider recognition and the government should make a commitment that they will continue to attract points and count when it comes to the league tables.
  • Whilst league tables remain in place the issue of severe grading of GCSEs needs to be taken seriously so that there is parity between languages and other subject areas.  The performance indicators introduced in the wake of the Dearing report also need to be taken more seriously and senior management teams held to account if there is insufficient uptake at KS4. 
  • Until we get some of the changes outlined above our greatest battle is often, and will continue to remain, within our own establishments.  There is a worrying trend of schools moving towards a 2 year KS3 which needs to be addressed not to mention the situation in many schools where language departments are fighting for time on the curriculum, for appropriate timetabling and resources.  We need to continue to challenge curriculum managers and timetablers over allocations such as one hour a week, two lessons timetabled on the same day, one language timetabled to be followed by another, languages set against subjects which may be perceived as more popular/easier in GSCE option blocks, and other such horrors.   In order to do this we need to convince our senior management teams of the value and importance of languages beyond the league tables, perhaps by taking a lead on a whole school initiative such embedding the international dimension or  the PLTS.
  • We need to make sure that what we do at KS3 is engaging and motivating so that young people want to keep learning languages.  We must celebrate and build on their prior learning at the primary stage and take advantage of the fact that the secondary curriculum has no prescribed content so we are free to go beyond the text book and to treat it as our servant rather than our master.   There are now many schools where some exciting and innovating work is being done and I would hope to see some continued commitment from government to support ways in which this can be shared and built upon.
  • If we are stuck with curriculum models and timetabling which don’t serve us and our learners can we at least persuade senior management teams of the benefits of, for example, the use of technology such mobile phones in the classroom to engage and motivate.   I was struck on the SSAT/Hanban summer camp I attended in July by the way in which the Chinese students were constantly using electronic dictionaries on their phones/Ipods  etc to look up words when communicating with our students.  We also need  to encourage our students to download/listen to  podcasts, songs you name it in the TL or to watch videos  on their mobile devices in order to increase their exposure to the TL.   Even if they did this for just 10 minutes a day it would make a huge difference to their listening and ultimately to their speaking skills; I and some of  my KS5 students regularly use Chinesepod in this way.
  • Finally – September 26th is the European Day of Languages – Let’s celebrate all the positive things that we are able to achieve!

 


WWW or the wonderful world of Wordle

April 30, 2010

 

The image above is a Wordle of the importance statement of the MFL  programme of study.  It is a word cloud created by a free online application at www.wordle.net/  which randomizes text and displays the words according to the frequency of the words used (the more frequent the word, the bigger the word).  It has tremendous potential for use in the classroom in terms of developing language learning and thinking skills:

  1. As a starter – to introduce new vocabulary or topic.    At a simple level pupils can be given a wordle of vocabulary or text  from a new topic area and they can work individually/ in pairs/groups to identify which words they know, which ones they can guess (cognates) and which ones they need to use dictionary skills to work out.  At advanced level learners can be give a wordle of a text which they use as a starting point for a discussion trying  to predict the context.
  2. To apply their knowledge about  language to categorise the words in the wordle.  e.g. nouns/verbs/adjectives or to classify nouns by gender.
  3. As a plenary/tool for AfL – e.g. a wordle created of TL and English words which pupils have to match up or a wordle in the TL in which they demonstrate their knowledge about language  or phonics or their ability to use language creatively.
  4. To demonstrate understanding of phonics by classifying words by their phonemes/letter strings.
  5. As a revision aid – a summary of a particular topic or context or as an aide-memoire.
  6. To help pupils develop presentation and spontaneous speaking skills.
  7. To show the results of a class survey or poll or as a display.
  8. To promote creativity – pupils are challenged to create sentences/stories etc from words on a wordle.
  9. As a tool in a listening exercise – pupils cross out the words they can identify in a spoken text.
  10. To encourage self reflection (PLTS – reflective learners) and to  improve written work – the frequency count in a wordle will highlight words that can get over used e.g. “intéressant” or “lustig”.  A  wordle can also make it easier for pupils to spot their own mistakes (e.g. in the incorrect use of accents) as it breaks up the normal order of words, thus making it less likely that they will simply gloss over their mistakes.

These are just some of the few ways in which a wordle can be used and they are dead simple to create as you can see here:

View more presentations from lizfotheringham.